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常見的熱處理工藝有哪些?
來源: | 作者:pmo7b64f4 | 發布時間: 316天前 | 238 次瀏覽 | 分享到:

常見的熱處理工藝有正火,退火,固溶,時效,淬火,回火,退火,滲碳,滲氮,調質,球化,釬焊等:

        1. 正火:將鋼材或鋼件加熱到臨界點AC3或ACM以上的適當溫度保持一定時間后在空氣中冷卻,得到珠光體類組織的熱處理工藝。

        2. 退火annealing:將亞共析鋼工件加熱至AC3以上20—40度,保溫一段時間后,隨爐緩慢冷卻(或埋在砂中或石灰中冷卻)至500度以下在空氣中冷卻的熱處理工藝。

        3. 固溶熱處理:將合金加熱至高溫單相區恒溫保持,使過剩相充分溶解到固溶體中,然后快速冷卻,以得到過飽和固溶體的熱處理工藝。

        4. 時效:合金經固溶熱處理或冷塑性形變后,在室溫放置或稍高于室溫保持時,其性能隨時間而變化的現象。

        5.固溶處理:使合金中各種相充分溶解,強化固溶體并提高韌性及抗蝕性能,消除應力與軟化,以便繼續加工成型。

        6. 時效處理:在強化相析出的溫度加熱并保溫,使強化相沉淀析出,得以硬化,提高強度。

        7. 淬火:將鋼奧氏體化后以適當的冷卻速度冷卻,使工件在橫截面內全部或一定的范圍內發生馬氏體等不穩定組織結構轉變的熱處理工藝。

        8. 回火:將經過淬火的工件加熱到臨界點AC1以下的適當溫度保持一定時間,隨后用符合要求的方法冷卻,以獲得所需要的組織和性能的熱處理工藝。

        9. 鋼的碳氮共滲:碳氮共滲是向鋼的表層同時滲入碳和氮的過程。習慣上碳氮共滲又稱為氰化,以中溫氣體碳氮共滲和低溫氣體碳氮共滲(即氣體軟氮化)應用較為廣泛。中溫氣體碳氮共滲的主要目的是提高鋼的硬度,耐磨性和疲勞強度。低溫氣體碳氮共滲以滲氮為主,其主要目的是提高鋼的耐磨性和抗咬合性。

        10. 調質處理(quenching and tempering):一般習慣將淬火加高溫回火相結合的熱處理稱為調質處理。調質處理廣泛應用于各種重要的結構零件,特別是那些在交變負荷下工作的連桿、螺栓、齒輪及軸類等。調質處理后得到回火索氏體組織,它的機械性能均比相同硬度的正火索氏體組織為優。它的硬度取決于高溫回火溫度并與鋼的回火穩定性和工件截面尺寸有關,一般在HB200—350之間。
         11. 釬焊:用釬料將兩種工件加熱融化粘合在一起的熱處理工藝。

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